## Potential Energy

### Introduction

• It is the energy of an object due to the virtue of its position, configuration and orientation.
• It is denoted by 'u'.
• There are various types of potential energy.

#### Examples of Potential Energy:

1. Water stored in dams contain potential energy.
2. Elongated or compressed spring also has potential energy.
3. Objects placed at a height contain potential energy.
4. Two charged particle separated at a distance contain potential energy.

### Gravitational Potential Energy

It is the energy of an object due to its position. Its value is taken as 0 on the surface of the earth. It is given by a formula:

u = mgh

u is the potential energy.
m is the mass of the object.
g is the acceleration due to gravity.
h is the height of an object.

#### Expression:

work = force * displacement
w = mg * h
(as work = potential energy)
Gravitation al Potential Energy = mgh

#### Factors affecting gravitational potential energy:

1. It is directly proportional to the mass of the object.
2. It is directly proportional to the height of the object.
3. It is directly proportional to the acceleration due to gravity.

### Elastic Potential Energy

It is the energy related to spring or elastic chord.
Elastic potential energy is given by a formula:
u = 1/2 k x^2
u is the energy
k is constant
x is displacement of spring

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### Anode Ray Experiment

→Anode ray experiment was conducted by E Goldstein. →These rays are also known as canal rays. →This experiment helped in the discovery of the proton. Apparatus Used A discharge tube  was taken in which there were 2 electrodes i.e. Anode(+ve) and the cathode (-ve). The tube was filled with an inert gas. A perforated or porous cathode was used. A layer of zinc sulphide was placed at the back of the cathode. There was a vacuum pump in the tube. High voltage (5000v-10000v) was allowed to flow through the system. It was observed that when the gas was at 1atm(atmospheric pressure ) no change was seen in the tube.  When the   pressure   was decreased inside the tube, a glow could be seen at the back side of the cathode.

### Isotopes, Isobars and Isotones

Isotopes These are elements which have the same atomic number but different atomic mass . They have the same atomic number because the number of protons that are inside their nuclei remains the same. But, they have different atomic mass because the number of neutrons that are also inside their nuclei is different. As the number of protons inside nuclei remains same, therefore the overall charge of the elements also remains same as in isotopes: no of protons = no of electrons . Hence, as isotopes overall charge remains neutral, therefore their chemical properties will also remain identical.   Therefore, Isotopes are chemically same but physically different.

### Rutherford Alpha Ray Scattering Experiment

Rutherford Alpha Ray Scattering Experiment Hey, Guys, most of you might have heard about the alpha ray scattering experiment and if you want to know in detail about Rutherford's model and the experiment he conducted, this is the right place for you... But first: Things You Must Know Some basic information that will help you understand rutherford experiment properly: Proton is a sub-atomic particle which is positively charged and has a mass of 1u. Alpha particles are helium atom with a charge of +2 as they have lost 2 electrons. Alpha particles have an atomic mass  of 4u. Gold is highly malleable and can be beaten into very thin sheets. Experiment Rutherford conducted his experiment in the following way: Rutherford took a very thin gold foil and bombarded it with high energy alpha particles. He placed a layer of zinc sulphide on the walls where the experiment was taking place because when alpha particles strike zinc sulphide layer, it results i